신호기/Ko

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이 문서는 영어에서 한국어로 번역되고 있는 중입니다.

원본 문서의 제목: Signals
번역률: 25%
  
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신호기 설치 튜토리얼을 읽어서 어떻게 신호기를 설치하는지 알아보세요.

철도 신호기열차 운행을 제어하기에 유용한 도구입니다. 신호들은 다른 열차가 들어 가 있을 수 있는 구역에 기차가 들어가지 않을 수 있게 하고 열차끼리 충돌하지 않도록 예방하는 역할도 합니다. 또한 신호를 따라 선로의 정보를 얻는 것에도 사용된다.3개의 주요한 신호등은 폐색 신호등으로 폐색 구간 안에 다른 열차가 있는 경우 다른 열차의 접근을 막는다. 신호기의 세 가지 큰 종류는 해당 폐색 구간에 열차가 있으면 다른 열차의 진입을 무조건적으로 막는 일반 폐색 신호기, 블록 신호기와 기능은 같지만 출구가 확보되어야만 진입을 허용하는 사전 신호기, 그리고 경로를 미리 확보하여 서로 간섭이 되지 않을 경우 진입을 가능케하는 경로 신호기가 있습니다.

Contents

일반 폐색 신호기

일반 폐색 신호기는 선로를 블럭으로 나누고 그 블럭에서의 열차의 움직임에 따라 바뀝니다. 일반 폐색 신호기는 다음 블럭이 열차에 의해 점유중일 때 열차를 멈추고 빨간 불로 바뀝니다. 그렇지 않으면 열차의 통과를 허락하고 초록불로 바뀝니다. 해당 신호기에서 접근 가능한 모든 선로 타일이 하나의 블럭으로 간주됩니다. 열차의 진행 예정 경로가 선로를 점유중인 다른 열차와 겹치지 않는다고 할지라도, 일반 폐색 신호기는 열차의 다음 블록으로의 진행을 허가하지 않을 것입니다.

양방향 신호기

Two-way signals at a loading station

Two-way signal.png

양방향 신호기는 열차가 양방향으로 다닐 수 있게 하는 신호등입니다. 역의 같은 쪽으로 열차가 들어오고 나가는 종점에 있는 역에서 가장 많이 쓰이는 신호기입니다. 오른쪽에 있는 예시에서, 신호기는 다음 열차에게 역의 빈 홈으로 들어올 수 있도록 방향을 지정해줍니다. 게다가 다른 열차가 같은 경로 상에 있다면 역의 홈을 벗어나는 것을 막습니다.

만약 열차가 2개 또는 그 이상의 양방향 신호기가 설치된 경로가 있다면 , 열차는 초록불이 점등되어 있는 경로로 진행할 것입니다. 만약 모든 신호등이 빨간불이라면 열차는 가장 쉬운 경로를 탐색하고 신호기가 바뀔 때까지 대기할 것 입니다.

양방향 신호기는 처음으로 또한 유일하게 오리지널 트랜스포트 타이쿤에 도입된 신호기입니다.


단방향 신호기

One-way signal.png

단방향 신호기는 열차를 한방향으로만 갈 수 있도록 제한합니다. 아래의 예시에서, 신호가 열차들이 원을 그리며 돌 수 있도록 합니다.

One-way signals in a loop

단방향 신호기를 쓰는 것이 일반 폐색 신호등을 쓰는 것보다 유용한 두가지 상황이 있습니다:

  • 회차역은 열차가 입구를 막지 않고 거꾸로 나가는 것을 막으면서 역에 정차하게 합니다. 이것은 열차가 역을 들어가고 나가는 것을 더 효율적으로 만듭니다.
  • 2대 이상의 열차가 있는 복선에서 서로 역방향으로 달리지 않도록 해줍니다. 열차가 운행중인 단선의 선로에서 그들은 같은 지점에서 충돌할 것이기 때문에 어떤 열차도 역주행할 수 없습니다.복선에서 모든 열차는 한 방향으로만 달릴 수 있고 그들은 절대 충돌하지 않습니다, 열차가 다른 열차를 기다릴 필요가 없다는 것을 의미하며,항상 그 선로로 달릴 수 있게 해줍니다.

열차가 단방향 신호기의 잘못된 방향에서 진입을 하면, 그 열차는 정지되고 사용자가 고급 신호 설정에서 신호 앞에서 회차비활성화하지 않는한 즉시 회차합니다. 단방향 신호기를 사용할 때,반드시 신호기가 모두 올바른 방향을 바라보는지 확인합니다. 새롭게 신호등을 설치한 선로에서 목적지까지 가는 첫번째 열차를 지켜보는 것은 어떠한 실수를 저지르지 않았다는 것을 보장하는 좋은 방법입니다.

존재하는 양방향 신호기를 단방향 신호기로 바꾸기 위해 클릭합니다. 신호등의 방향을 바꾸기 위해 다시 클릭합니다 (양방향 신호기로 바꾸기 위해); 세번 클릭하시면 다시 양방향 신호기로 돌아옵니다.

만일 열차가 분기점 앞에 있고 양 갈래의 선로에 모두 단방향 신호기가 설치되어있다면, 열차는 설정된 목적지의 방향으로 경로를 설정할 것입니다. (먼저 초록색으로 바뀌는 신호기 대신 목적지 방향의 신호기가 개통될 때까지 대기할 것입니다.) 이것은 양방향 신호기와 대조되는 점입니다. 단방향 신호기가 시각적으로는 통과하는 방향쪽에만 설정되어 있는 것처럼 보일지라도, 기술적으로는 반대 방향의 신호기가 그 방향에서의 진입을 영구적으로 차단하며 빨간색을 지시하고 있습니다. 이는 실제 세계에서는 존재하지 않는 개념으로, 조금 더 난이도 있는 경로 신호기의 사용법에 관심이 있는 유저들이 쉽게 착각할 수 있는 부분이기도 합니다.

단방향 신호기는 트랜스포트 타이쿤에서 제일 먼저 도입되었습니다.

경로 신호기

신호기 설정창에서의 두 가지 새로운 신호기.

트랜스포트 타이쿤시절 도입된 블럭 기반 신호기의 단점을 보완하기 위하여 '블럭 신호기'라는 새로운 신호기가 도입되었습니다. 이 신호기들은 열차들이 신호기를 통과하기 전에 다음 신호기까지의 열차의 진행 경로를 미리 예약하도록 합니다. 경로 신호기는 한 대의 열차가 이미 블럭을 점유중일 지라도 다른 열차의 예약된 경로가 원래의 열차와 겹치지 않을 경우 다른 열차의 진입을 허가하는데, 이는 기존의 일반 폐색 신호기나 사전 신호기에서는 불가능한 개념입니다. 이 신호기를 통해 보다 복잡하고 집적화된 교차로와 분기점을 데드락현상 없이 제작할 수 있습니다.


일반 폐색 신호기와 경로 신호기가 대조되는 가장 대표적인 상황은 바로 건넘선이 설치되어 있을 경우입니다.
  • 일반 폐색 신호기의 경우, 두 열차의 경로가 전혀 마주치지 않음에도 불구하고 해당 블록이 이미 윗쪽 열차에 의해 점유되어 있으므로 아래쪽 선로 열차의 진입을 제한합니다..
  • 경로 신호기의 경우, 두 열차의 경로가 전혀 겹치지 않을 때 한 블럭에 열차가 동시에 진입하는 것을 허가합니다.

경로 신호기는 보다 현실적인 신호 체계를 구현하기 위한 노력입니다. 그 이유로는:

  1. 실제 신호는 상시로 빨간색을 현시하다가 열차가 접근하여 진행 경로가 확보된 때만 일시적으로 초록색으로 바뀌는 방식으로, 보다 현실적인 교차로를 만들 때에 교차로의 같은 블럭 내에서 선로 분기기의 방향에 맞추어 안전하게 두 대 이상의 열차가 지날 수 있도록 해줍니다.
  2. Exit-signal (either the generic block signal or exit-signal in the pre-signal setup) immediately after the intersection which is used to quickly free the intersection block for another train to enter in Transport Tycoon does not exist in real world signalling system because of the risk of the train getting stuck right on the junction, creating a deadlock.
  3. A single signal facing one side is not necessarily one-way in the real world (unless player is using the "one-way path signal" specifically to limit the passing direction). Train can still pass through the track with signal from behind as if there is no signal. As mentioned in the previous point, exit-signal does not exist in the real world. This is particularly important for a station with single sided entrance/exit in front of a junction, (non one-way) path signal is placed in front of the station exit, facing the station side.

Here is an example as illustration:

Block signals far beyond the junction Block signals immediately after the junction Path signal before the junction
We have here a Y block among three signals.

The right track is used by a train. A train arrives from the lower track and wants to go to the left track. A standard block signal considers that all the block is occupied (even if the left track is free).

A solution is to split this block into smaller blocks by adding signals after the junction. With two additional block signals, theY has been split into three blocks: right arm, left arm and junction. On the contrary, the path signal authorizes the train coming from the bottom to enter the Y block, as the path it tries to reserve is free (the left track). No need to split the block into smaller blocks (i.e. no need for signals immediately after the junction).
Signal bloc.png

Y block among three block signals.

Multiples standard.png

With two additional block signals, the Y has been split into three blocks: right arm, left arm and junction.

Chemin.png

Y block between a path signal and two block signals.

There are two things you should know about this signal:

  • Place it only where trains can stop and wait without blocking junctions ;
  • This signal only works in one direction. In the other direction, it is either ignored or considered a one-way signal, depending on the signal path (see below).
Yapp pbssignal.png Path Signal (PS): trains can pass through this signal from the back side. Not to be confused with the one-way (block) signal.
Yapp onewaypbssignal.png One-way Path Signal (1W PS): trains cannot pass through this signal from the back side, as if there is another signal facing the opposite side permanently red.

Most of the time it will be sufficient to use a default path signal, as passing a path signal from the back is penalised by the pathfinder, unless the destination (station or waypoint) is right after the path signal facing backward. However, one-way path signals might be useful in certain specific cases.

The two new signal types behave a bit differently than standard block signal types. The path signals are red by default, and will only show green as soon as a train can reserve a path to the next safe waiting position on its route. Safe waiting positions are - by definition - in front of signals, depots and track ends. The back of a path signal is not considered a safe waiting position, and therefore paths are reserved through these signals.

Because the front of every signal is defined as a safe waiting position, you would normally not want to place a signal immediately behind a junction, only in front of a junction. This is because it is only safe for a train to wait in front of a junction. It is not safe for a a train to wait at a signal immediately after a junction before the whole train has cleared the junction, as it would be blocking the junction while waiting, as illustrated in the example below. This is a major advantage against traditional block signals, where you had to place signals before and after junctions, which caused trains to block junctions while waiting.

Yapp unsafewaitinglocation.png

Bad: The signal indicated by the arrow is a bad waiting location, as the train in the junction now blocks the otherwise free path of the train coming from the top. There's a second bad waiting location in this picture. Can you find it?

Yappgoodexample.png

Good: Here there is enough space after the juction for a train to wait. As long as this space is unavailable, the next train will wait before the junction rather than blocking it. This allows the train coming from the top to proceed.

This is one other example of what you can do with those path signals. This works far better than using pre-signals because you can have two trains leaving the station at the same time AND share the same depot (there is no way to make it with pre-signals, because of the block share). In this case there are one-way path signals for trains leaving the station, and simple path signal for trains leaving the depot.

Two exit station. Note that the signals in front of the depot are not required, as depots have built-in signals. However, path signals in front of depots like this give trains leaving the depot priority over trains wanting to enter the depot.

Although the screen shot above does not show, it is unnecessary to place any signal between the pass-through station entrance and junction (effectively an "exit-signal" in the traditional block signal setup) if the signal of entrance tracks in front of the junction is path signal.

Pass-through station does not require exit signal in front of the station entrance, if all signals are path signal type.

Advanced Settings

YAPP Advanced Settings

There are three new Advanced Settings related to path signals.

One option is to highlight reserved tracks. This option is useful to troubleshoot your path-signaled junctions, as you can see what paths trains have reserved through a junction.

The other two options control how the build signal tool should behave. You can set the signal type which should be built by default when building a new signal with the signal tool and change which signal types should be cycled through on ctrl-clicking an already existing signal.

There are a few more path signal related options which are not available through the Advanced Settings window. What these options are, and how to edit them is covered under Advanced path signal options & features.

Basic examples of path signals

Below are some example track layouts which use the path signals. There are also Advanced track layouts that are not recommended for beginners.

Basic junction

This basic junction now has a much higher throughput because trains only have to wait for trains running on the same line. The train coming from the right (going up) would usually have to wait for other trains coming back from the left tracks. It would now only have to wait if it wishes to switch lines. Note the 6 bounding signals to the 'junction block', and 3 total path signals, one at each entryway.

Basic junction for trains (optimised for 3-tile length). Path signals are present at all entries to the junction block. Note the use of normal signals on plain track.

Basic two-way station

With this station layout, trains can use both platforms when coming from either direction. Because path signals do not create blocks on their reverse, the train cannot enter until there is a clear path until the signal on the opposite side of the platform (which must include the platform space), allowing it to safely stop. Note that this setup could alternatively be replicated with a set of block-exit presignals in-front of the station.

Basic station.


Feature availability

<1.0

1.0-1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5-1.7

Nightly

Pre-signals

Pre-signals are a group of specialised block signals. They are so named because block entry pre-signal input comes from not just the track in the block, but any other pre-signals placed on the other side of the block (that is to say exits from that block). They are used to limit the entry of trains into blocks that cannot be obstructed or occupied. In most cases you can use path signals to solve situations where trains can choose between multiple alternatives, for instance at stations or single-track lines that are used by trains in both directions.

A problem with block signal only setup - the left train may leave first, the train waiting behind may get stuck in the track right behind the right train.
Solve the problem using presignals

The image on the top right shows a setup where entry to a station is controlled using ordinary signals. When at least one platform is empty, this works well, as an incoming train is always directed to a free platform. However, consider what happens when all platforms are full, as in the screenshot. All branches are showing red, so the incoming train picks the shortest path - straight on. But suppose the train on the platform to the right is going to be in the station for some time. Meanwhile, the train on the left leaves. The incoming train has committed itself to a platform and is stuck between the signals, waiting for a train to depart even though there is now an empty platform available. We need to stop that incoming train before the track splits so that it picks the empty platform when a train leaves. For this you can use path signals, but you can also solve this situation with pre-signals. In fact, this was the way to build stations before path signals were invented.

Pre-signals function as block signals, but additionally decide on which colour to show by the status of other pre-signals in the same direction down the track. Specifically, an entry pre-signal allows trains to enter if, and only if, there is at least one green exit out of the adjacent/following block. You, as the planner, need to identify which signals are to be the block entry pre-signals and which are to identify exits.

Block Entry Pre-signal

Entry presignal.png

An entry pre-signal checks the signal aspect of all exit pre-signals of the signal block following the entry pre-signal. If there is at least one green exit pre-signal, the entry pre-signal wil also show green. If all exit pre-signals of the next block are red, then the entry pre-signal is also red.

This prevents trains from entering the block and obstructing it until there is an available exit. Note that depots have a built-in two way signal (it works as an entry pre-signal in a pre-signal set).

If there are no signals designated as exits on the block directly behind the entry pre-signal, it behaves as a normal block signal. This is convenient for bi-directional pre-signals where only one direction needs pre-signal functionality.

Block Exit pre-signal

Exit presignal.png

The exit pre-signals are what an entry pre-signal looks for to decide what aspect to show. They otherwise behave in the same way as a normal block signal.

To summarize: in the direction of travel you first have an entry pre-signal, then a junction where the track splits in at least two directions. After the junction there is an exit pre-signal on each branch. If the first block of each branch after the junction is occupied, then no trains will be allowed onto the junction. If at least one branch is available, then the junction will be available as well. Note that trains still can choose the occupied branch, if that is the only route to its destination. If both branches lead to the destination, then the train will choose the branch that is not occupied.


Combo-signal

Station with 1 entry pre-signal, 2 combo-signals, and 4 exit-signals

Combo presignal.png

There is a third type of pre-signal called the combo signal and simply acts as both an entry and exit signal. They effectively combine many exit signals into one signal, effectively copying their effect down the chain. Any one green exit signal will make any combo signals up the line become green, which will successively relay up to the original block entry signal. This allows you to build large "trees" of pre-signals spanning several blocks, as shown on the right.

In a tree of pre-signals, combo-signals are placed in between the entry pre-signals and exit-signals for that reason above, the other 2 types of signals are placed at the very beginning and end of the setup respectively.

Building pre-signals

To build a pre-signal select the appropriate button in signal selection toolbar.

In previous versions, first place an ordinary signal. Then, with Ctrl held down, click the signal to cycle through the different kinds of presignal:

  • Note that you can build one way pre-signals in the same way as you build ordinary one way signals. Remember: holding Ctrl and clicking toggles the type of (pre)signal, clicking without Ctrl changes the direction of signaling - if interface signals not enabled.
  • Remember not to hold down Ctrl when placing the signal initially or you will end up with a semaphore (see below). Also use Ctrl if you have enabled the signal interface.

Limitation

The problem with pre-signals...

An important point to note with exit signals is that a green exit signal will trigger a green on the entry pre-signal at the beginning of the block even if it is not actually possible for a train to get to that exit signal because of the track layout (as in the image to the right with a train entering on the bottom track cannot technically exit from the top track). This can ruin more complicated pre-signaling setups, so care needs to be taken with planning.

One of the bugs that are noted as "will not be solved" is: lost trains ignore (block) exit signals. If trains are lost, a random direction is chosen at each junction, so they ignore block exit signals, and may easily block junctions with pre-signals. Such case, however, can be easily resolved by replacing with path signals.


Directing trains

Signals are intended to prevent trains from crashing into each other, and to help them choose between several track sections to the same destination. If you want to direct a train to a particular destination via a certain route, you should use Waypoints.

See Also

Personal tools