신호기/Ko

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''[[신호기 설치]] 튜토리얼을 읽어서 어떻게 신호기를 설치하는지 알아보세요.''
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{{번역/Ko|from=en|to=ko|origin=Signals|Percentage=10}}
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''[[신호기 설치/Ko|신호기 설치]] 튜토리얼을 읽어서 어떻게 신호기를 설치하는지 알아보세요.''
  
'''[[철도]] 신호기'''는 [[열차]] 운행을 제어하기에 유용한 도구입니다. '''[[Railway]] Signals''' are useful devices that allow you to control [[train]] movement. They do this by preventing trains from entering areas where other trains might be, and so preventing them from crashing. This usually involves taking information from the section of track following the signal. The three main types of signal are block signals, which simply deny access if the section has any trains; pre-signals, which operate similarly, but also require there to be an available exit from the section; and path signals, which compares the train's desired path to current train presence and allows access if the two do not interfere.
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'''[[철도/Ko|철도]] 신호기'''는 [[열차/Ko|열차]] 운행을 제어하기에 유용한 도구입니다. '''[[Railway]] Signals''' are useful devices that allow you to control [[train]] movement. They do this by preventing trains from entering areas where other trains might be, and so preventing them from crashing. This usually involves taking information from the section of track following the signal. The three main types of signal are block signals, which simply deny access if the section has any trains; pre-signals, which operate similarly, but also require there to be an available exit from the section; and path signals, which compares the train's desired path to current train presence and allows access if the two do not interfere.
  
 
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Revision as of 06:16, 2 November 2015


Translation.png

이 문서는 영어에서 한국어로 번역되고 있는 중입니다.

원본 문서의 제목: Signals
번역률: 10%
  
  • 초안을 작성하는 것을 도와주세요.
  • 올바른 수정을 위해 스타일 매뉴얼을 참고해주십시오.
  • 해당 문서가 완벽하게 번역된 이후에 이 틀을 제거해주십시오.

신호기 설치 튜토리얼을 읽어서 어떻게 신호기를 설치하는지 알아보세요.

철도 신호기열차 운행을 제어하기에 유용한 도구입니다. Railway Signals are useful devices that allow you to control train movement. They do this by preventing trains from entering areas where other trains might be, and so preventing them from crashing. This usually involves taking information from the section of track following the signal. The three main types of signal are block signals, which simply deny access if the section has any trains; pre-signals, which operate similarly, but also require there to be an available exit from the section; and path signals, which compares the train's desired path to current train presence and allows access if the two do not interfere.

Contents

일반 폐색 신호기

일반 폐색 신호기는 선로를 블럭으로 나누고 그 블럭에서의 열차의 움직임에 따라 바뀝니다. 일반 폐색 신호기는 다음 블럭이 열차에 의해 점유중일 때 열차를 멈추고 빨간 불로 바뀝니다. 그렇지 않으면 열차의 통과를 허락하고 초록불로 바뀝니다. Any and all track tiles physically reachable from the signal up to the next signal on that track are counted as the same block, regardless if there are multiple branches. Even if the expected path of the train does not collide with the path of the other train which is currently occupying the block, the block signal will not authorize the train in front of it to enter the block ahead, as opposed to path signals.

양방향 신호기

Two-way signals at a loading station

Two-way signal.png

양방향 신호기는 열차가 양방향으로 다닐 수 있게 하는 신호등입니다. 역의 같은 쪽으로 열차가 들어오고 나가는 종점에 있는 역에서 가장 많이 쓰이는 신호기입니다. 오른쪽에 있는 예시에서, 신호기는 다음 열차에게 역의 빈 홈으로 들어올 수 있도록 방향을 지정해줍니다. 게다가 다른 열차가 같은 경로 상에 있다면 역의 홈을 벗어나는 것을 막습니다.

만약 열차가 2개 또는 그 이상의 양방향 신호기가 설치된 경로가 있다면 , 열차는 초록불이 점등되어 있는 경로로 진행할 것입니다. 만약 모든 신호등이 빨간불이라면 열차는 가장 쉬운 경로를 탐색하고 신호기가 바뀔 때까지 대기할 것 입니다.

양방향 신호기는 처음으로 또한 유일하게 오리지널 트랜스포트 타이쿤에 도입된 신호기입니다.


단방향 신호기

One-way signal.png

단방향 신호기는 열차를 한방향으로만 갈 수 있도록 제한합니다. 아래의 예시에서, 신호가 열차들이 원을 그리며 돌 수 있도록 합니다.

One-way signals in a loop

단방향 신호기를 쓰는 것이 일반 폐색 신호등을 쓰는 것보다 유용한 두가지 상황이 있습니다:

  • 회차역은 열차가 입구를 막지 않고 거꾸로 나가는 것을 막으면서 역에 정차하게 합니다. 이것은 열차가 역을 들어가고 나가는 것을 더 효율적으로 만듭니다.
  • 2대 이상의 열차가 있는 복선에서 서로 역방향으로 달리지 않도록 해줍니다. 열차가 운행중인 단선의 선로에서 그들은 같은 지점에서 충돌할 것이기 때문에 어떤 열차도 역주행할 수 없습니다.복선에서 모든 열차는 한 방향으로만 달릴 수 있고 그들은 절대 충돌하지 않습니다, 열차가 다른 열차를 기다릴 필요가 없다는 것을 의미하며,항상 그 선로로 달릴 수 있게 해줍니다.

열차가 단방향 신호기의 잘못된 방향에서 진입을 하면, 그 열차는 정지되고 사용자가 고급 신호 설정에서 신호 앞에서 회차비활성화하지 않는한 즉시 회차합니다. 단방향 신호기를 사용할 때,반드시 신호기가 모두 올바른 방향을 바라보는지 확인합니다. 새롭게 신호등을 설치한 선로에서 목적지까지 가는 첫번째 열차를 지켜보는 것은 어떠한 실수를 저지르지 않았다는 것을 보장하는 좋은 방법입니다.

존재하는 양방향 신호기를 단방향 신호기로 바꾸기 위해 클릭합니다. 신호등의 방향을 바꾸기 위해 다시 클릭합니다 (양방향 신호기로 바꾸기 위해); 세번 클릭하시면 다시 양방향 신호기로 돌아옵니다.

If a train has a choice of tracks, each with a one way signal, it will pick the track heading towards its destination (i.e. it will wait until the signal on the track heading towards its destination turns green, as opposed to taking whichever signal is green if one of the signals is red). This is in contrast with two way signals.

Although the one-way (블록) signal appears there is only one side of the signal facing the passing direction, technically speaking, the disappeared signal of the other side still exists and is red permanently to block the entrance from that side. This appearance is not true in the real world signalling system and is misleading for players who wish to learn the usage of the more advanced path signalling system which is more realistic and efficient in handling junction traffic.

단방향 신호기는 트랜스포트 타이쿤에서 제일 먼저 소개되었습니다.

Path signals

Two new signal types in the signal GUI.

There is a new signal type, "path signal", to overcome the limitations of the original block based signalling of Transport Tycoon. These signals enable trains to reserve a path through a block until the next signal, before entering the block. If another train wants to enter the block, and succeeds in reserving a path through the block, the path signal authorizes the train to enter the signal block, even if another track of the block is used at the same time, which is impossible with the traditional block signals only and/or pre-signals setup. It is entirely possible to build a sophisticated railway network with path signals only due to their better ability in preventing junction deadlock.

The most important difference between block signal setup and path signal setup as shown in this example: two parallel tracks are connected by a crossover.
  • In the block signal setup, the signal does not authorize the lower train to enter the signal block because it is currently occupied by the upper train, even though there is absolutely no risk of letting the lower train pass through it.
  • In the path signal setup, the lower train is authorized to pass through the junction as long as the upper train does not switch path from upper tracks to lower.

Path signalling is an attempt to simulate a more realistic path based signalling (PBS) system because:

  1. Real signal is constantly red and only green temporarily when a train approaches in front of it and the path ahead does not collide with the path of another train. In a realistic junction setup, it is possible to allow multiple trains in the intersection of same block to pass-by safely due to railroad switch limiting which side of the junction the train can turn to.
  2. Exit-signal (either the generic block signal or exit-signal in the pre-signal setup) immediately after the intersection which is used to quickly free the intersection block for another train to enter in Transport Tycoon does not exist in real world signalling system because of the risk of the train getting stuck right on the junction, creating a deadlock.
  3. A single signal facing one side is not necessarily one-way in the real world (unless player is using the "one-way path signal" specifically to limit the passing direction). Train can still pass through the track with signal from behind as if there is no signal. As mentioned in the previous point, exit-signal does not exist in the real world. This is particularly important for a station with single sided entrance/exit in front of a junction, (non one-way) path signal is placed in front of the station exit, facing the station side.

Here is an example as illustration:

Block signals far beyond the junction Block signals immediately after the junction Path signal before the junction
We have here a Y block among three signals.

The right track is used by a train. A train arrives from the lower track and wants to go to the left track. A standard block signal considers that all the block is occupied (even if the left track is free).

A solution is to split this block into smaller blocks by adding signals after the junction. With two additional block signals, theY has been split into three blocks: right arm, left arm and junction. On the contrary, the path signal authorizes the train coming from the bottom to enter the Y block, as the path it tries to reserve is free (the left track). No need to split the block into smaller blocks (i.e. no need for signals immediately after the junction).
Signal bloc.png

Y block among three block signals.

Multiples standard.png

With two additional block signals, the Y has been split into three blocks: right arm, left arm and junction.

Chemin.png

Y block between a path signal and two block signals.

There are two things you should know about this signal:

  • Place it only where trains can stop and wait without blocking junctions ;
  • This signal only works in one direction. In the other direction, it is either ignored or considered a one-way signal, depending on the signal path (see below).
Yapp pbssignal.png Path Signal (PS): trains can pass through this signal from the back side. Not to be confused with the one-way (block) signal.
Yapp onewaypbssignal.png One-way Path Signal (1W PS): trains cannot pass through this signal from the back side, as if there is another signal facing the opposite side permanently red.

Most of the time it will be sufficient to use a default path signal, as passing a path signal from the back is penalised by the pathfinder, unless the destination (station or waypoint) is right after the path signal facing backward. However, one-way path signals might be useful in certain specific cases.

The two new signal types behave a bit differently than standard block signal types. The path signals are red by default, and will only show green as soon as a train can reserve a path to the next safe waiting position on its route. Safe waiting positions are - by definition - in front of signals, depots and track ends. The back of a path signal is not considered a safe waiting position, and therefore paths are reserved through these signals.

Because the front of every signal is defined as a safe waiting position, you would normally not want to place a signal immediately behind a junction, only in front of a junction. This is because it is only safe for a train to wait in front of a junction. It is not safe for a a train to wait at a signal immediately after a junction before the whole train has cleared the junction, as it would be blocking the junction while waiting, as illustrated in the example below. This is a major advantage against traditional block signals, where you had to place signals before and after junctions, which caused trains to block junctions while waiting.

Yapp unsafewaitinglocation.png

Bad: The signal indicated by the arrow is a bad waiting location, as the train in the junction now blocks the otherwise free path of the train coming from the top. There's a second bad waiting location in this picture. Can you find it?

Yappgoodexample.png

Good: Here there is enough space after the juction for a train to wait. As long as this space is unavailable, the next train will wait before the junction rather than blocking it. This allows the train coming from the top to proceed.

This is one other example of what you can do with those path signals. This works far better than using pre-signals because you can have two trains leaving the station at the same time AND share the same depot (there is no way to make it with pre-signals, because of the block share). In this case there are one-way path signals for trains leaving the station, and simple path signal for trains leaving the depot.

Two exit station. Note that the signals in front of the depot are not required, as depots have built-in signals. However, path signals in front of depots like this give trains leaving the depot priority over trains wanting to enter the depot.

Although the screen shot above does not show, it is unnecessary to place any signal between the pass-through station entrance and junction (effectively an "exit-signal" in the traditional block signal setup) if the signal of entrance tracks in front of the junction is path signal.

Pass-through station does not require exit signal in front of the station entrance, if all signals are path signal type.

Advanced Settings

YAPP Advanced Settings

There are three new Advanced Settings related to path signals.

One option is to highlight reserved tracks. This option is useful to troubleshoot your path-signaled junctions, as you can see what paths trains have reserved through a junction.

The other two options control how the build signal tool should behave. You can set the signal type which should be built by default when building a new signal with the signal tool and change which signal types should be cycled through on ctrl-clicking an already existing signal.

There are a few more path signal related options which are not available through the Advanced Settings window. What these options are, and how to edit them is covered under Advanced path signal options & features.

Basic examples of path signals

Below are some example track layouts which use the path signals. There are also Advanced track layouts that are not recommended for beginners.

Basic junction

This basic junction now has a much higher throughput because trains only have to wait for trains running on the same line. The train coming from the right (going up) would usually have to wait for other trains coming back from the left tracks. It would now only have to wait if it wishes to switch lines. Note the 6 bounding signals to the 'junction block', and 3 total path signals, one at each entryway.

Basic junction for trains (optimised for 3-tile length). Path signals are present at all entries to the junction block. Note the use of normal signals on plain track.

Basic two-way station

With this station layout, trains can use both platforms when coming from either direction. Because path signals do not create blocks on their reverse, the train cannot enter until there is a clear path until the signal on the opposite side of the platform (which must include the platform space), allowing it to safely stop. Note that this setup could alternatively be replicated with a set of block-exit presignals in-front of the station.

Basic station.


Feature availability

<1.0

1.0-1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5-1.7

Nightly

Pre-signals

Pre-signals are a group of specialised block signals. They are so named because block entry pre-signal input comes from not just the track in the block, but any other pre-signals placed on the other side of the block (that is to say exits from that block). They are used to limit the entry of trains into blocks that cannot be obstructed or occupied. In most cases you can use path signals to solve situations where trains can choose between multiple alternatives, for instance at stations or single-track lines that are used by trains in both directions.

A problem with block signal only setup - the left train may leave first, the train waiting behind may get stuck in the track right behind the right train.
Solve the problem using presignals

The image on the top right shows a setup where entry to a station is controlled using ordinary signals. When at least one platform is empty, this works well, as an incoming train is always directed to a free platform. However, consider what happens when all platforms are full, as in the screenshot. All branches are showing red, so the incoming train picks the shortest path - straight on. But suppose the train on the platform to the right is going to be in the station for some time. Meanwhile, the train on the left leaves. The incoming train has committed itself to a platform and is stuck between the signals, waiting for a train to depart even though there is now an empty platform available. We need to stop that incoming train before the track splits so that it picks the empty platform when a train leaves. For this you can use path signals, but you can also solve this situation with pre-signals. In fact, this was the way to build stations before path signals were invented.

Pre-signals function as block signals, but additionally decide on which colour to show by the status of other pre-signals in the same direction down the track. Specifically, an entry pre-signal allows trains to enter if, and only if, there is at least one green exit out of the adjacent/following block. You, as the planner, need to identify which signals are to be the block entry pre-signals and which are to identify exits.

Block Entry Pre-signal

Entry presignal.png

An entry pre-signal checks the signal aspect of all exit pre-signals of the signal block following the entry pre-signal. If there is at least one green exit pre-signal, the entry pre-signal wil also show green. If all exit pre-signals of the next block are red, then the entry pre-signal is also red.

This prevents trains from entering the block and obstructing it until there is an available exit. Note that depots have a built-in two way signal (it works as an entry pre-signal in a pre-signal set).

If there are no signals designated as exits on the block directly behind the entry pre-signal, it behaves as a normal block signal. This is convenient for bi-directional pre-signals where only one direction needs pre-signal functionality.

Block Exit pre-signal

Exit presignal.png

The exit pre-signals are what an entry pre-signal looks for to decide what aspect to show. They otherwise behave in the same way as a normal block signal.

To summarize: in the direction of travel you first have an entry pre-signal, then a junction where the track splits in at least two directions. After the junction there is an exit pre-signal on each branch. If the first block of each branch after the junction is occupied, then no trains will be allowed onto the junction. If at least one branch is available, then the junction will be available as well. Note that trains still can choose the occupied branch, if that is the only route to its destination. If both branches lead to the destination, then the train will choose the branch that is not occupied.


Combo-signal

Station with 1 entry pre-signal, 2 combo-signals, and 4 exit-signals

Combo presignal.png

There is a third type of pre-signal called the combo signal and simply acts as both an entry and exit signal. They effectively combine many exit signals into one signal, effectively copying their effect down the chain. Any one green exit signal will make any combo signals up the line become green, which will successively relay up to the original block entry signal. This allows you to build large "trees" of pre-signals spanning several blocks, as shown on the right.

In a tree of pre-signals, combo-signals are placed in between the entry pre-signals and exit-signals for that reason above, the other 2 types of signals are placed at the very beginning and end of the setup respectively.

Building pre-signals

To build a pre-signal select the appropriate button in signal selection toolbar.

In previous versions, first place an ordinary signal. Then, with Ctrl held down, click the signal to cycle through the different kinds of presignal:

  • Note that you can build one way pre-signals in the same way as you build ordinary one way signals. Remember: holding Ctrl and clicking toggles the type of (pre)signal, clicking without Ctrl changes the direction of signaling - if interface signals not enabled.
  • Remember not to hold down Ctrl when placing the signal initially or you will end up with a semaphore (see below). Also use Ctrl if you have enabled the signal interface.

Limitation

The problem with pre-signals...

An important point to note with exit signals is that a green exit signal will trigger a green on the entry pre-signal at the beginning of the block even if it is not actually possible for a train to get to that exit signal because of the track layout (as in the image to the right with a train entering on the bottom track cannot technically exit from the top track). This can ruin more complicated pre-signaling setups, so care needs to be taken with planning.

One of the bugs that are noted as "will not be solved" is: lost trains ignore (block) exit signals. If trains are lost, a random direction is chosen at each junction, so they ignore block exit signals, and may easily block junctions with pre-signals. Such case, however, can be easily resolved by replacing with path signals.


Directing trains

Signals are intended to prevent trains from crashing into each other, and to help them choose between several track sections to the same destination. If you want to direct a train to a particular destination via a certain route, you should use Waypoints.

See Also

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