Jelzők/Hu

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Ez a cikk az eredeti angol nyelvű fordítása: Signals.

Lefordítva: kb. 1%
  
  • Kérem, segítsen a megfogalmazás tökéletesítésében.
  • Használja a Stíluskalauzt a helyes változathoz.
  • Ne felejtse el eltávolítani el ezt a sablont, ha a cikket teljesen lefordították.

Lásd a Jelzők építése oktatóanyagot gyakorlati bevezetésként

A Jelzők hasznos eszközök, melyek a vonatok mozgásának ellenőrzését teszik lehetővé. Ez szükséges ahhoz, hogy a vasúti hálózat ne omoljon össze több, mint egy vonat esetén.

Contents

Jelző elhelyezése

Signal build mode

Jelzők elhelyezéséhez jelzőépítő módban kell lenned. Ehhez nyisd meg a Vasúti pálya építése eszköztárat, és kattints a jelző-ikonra.

Jelzőépítő módban:

  • Jelző elhelyezéséhez kattints a pálya üres részére. Alapértelmezés szerint a kétirányú jelző lesz, ez az alaptípus (lásd lent, hogyan lehet más típusúra változtatni). Ha ugyanabban a térközben két párhuzamos pálya fut, figyelj arra, hogy pontosan arra a pályára kattints, melyre a jelzőt el szeretnéd helyezni.
  • Jelzősor gyors létrehozásához kattints egy, már létező jelzőre és húzd az egérmutatót a pályán. A jelzők a jelzősűrűség beállításánál megadott távolságra kerülnek, azzal a jelzővel azonos irányba, amellyel az egérhúzást kezdted.
  • Jelzősor teljes pályahosszon történő elhelyezéséhez a Ctrl-billentyű nyomva tartásával és egy, már elhelyezett jelzővel kezdődő egérhúzással lehet. Az egeret egyetlen térköznyit kell csak húzni, a játék magától elhelyezi a jelzősort a teljes pályahosszon, amíg egy vasútállomást, újabb jelzőt, vagy vasúti elágazót nem talál. Mint fentebb írtuk, a jelzők a jelzősűrűség beállításánál megadott távolságra kerülnek, azzal a jelzővel azonos irányba, amellyel az egérhúzást kezdted.
  • Jelző eltávolításához kattints a Toggle clear active.png bulldózer-gombra (még mindig jelzőépítő módban), majd kattints az eltávolítandó jelzőre. Jelzősor eltávolítására az egérhúzás mindkét, fent ismertetett típusa alkalmazható.
  • Más típusú blokkjelző vagy útvonaljelzők építéséhez a Ctrl nyomva tartása mellett kattints egy létező jelzőre.

Korlátozás

  • Jelző nem helyezhető elágazást vagy szintbeli közúti kereszteződést tartalmaző térközbe.
  • Jelző nem helyezhető hídra, vagy alagútba. De HackaLittleBit patch-ével automatikusan elhelyezett jelzők szimulálhatók.

A jelzők kezelőfelülete

Jelzők elhelyezéséhez új kezelőfelület használható, mely mentesít a jelzőtípusok közti ctrl-klikkeléssel történő váltogatás alól. Jelzők építéséhez a Ctrl-klikk is használható a Vasúti jelző építése ikonon, csakúgy, mint a Haladó beállítások/Építkezés/Jelzők menüben a Jelzőépítés-kezelő engedélyezése is beállítható (korábbi verziókban az openttd.cfg enable_signal_gui értékét kell true-ra állítani). Így, ha a Vasúti jelző építése ikonra kattintasz, a következő kezelőfelületet kapod:

Az új kezelőfelület
Szemaforok (a '70-es évek közepéig széleskörűen használatos régimódi elektromechanikus jelzők)
Signal Semaphore.png blokkjelzők
Signal Semaphore Pre-Signal.png bejárati előjelzők
Signal Semaphore Exit-Signal.png kijárati jelzők
Signal Semaphore Combo-Signal.png kombinált jelző
Signal Semaphore Path.png útvonaljelző (a másik irányból közelítve figyelmen kívül marad)
Signal Semaphore Path One-Way.png útvonaljelző (móögötte az elhaladás nem lehetséges)
Fényjelzők (a viselkedés ugyanaz, a kinézet más, napjainkban használatosak)
Signal Electric.png normál elektronikus blokkjelzők
Signal Electric Pre-Signal.png bejárati fényjelző
Signal Electric Exit-Signal.png kijárati fényjelző
Signal Electric Combo-Signal.png kombinált fényjelző
Signal Electric Path.png elektromos útvonaljelző (a másik irányból közelítve figyelmen kívül marad)
Signal Electric Path One-Way.png elektromos útvonaljelző (mögötte az elhaladás nem lehetséges)
Egyéb ikonok
Signal Convert.png Jelzőátalakító eszköz - a pályán található jelző típusát átalakítja a jelzőkezelőn kiválasztottra. Lásd Jelzők építése
Signal Density.png Jelzősűrűség eszköz - azt állítja be, milyen közel kerülnek a jelzők automatikus építése során Lásd Jelzők építése


Feature availability

<1.0

1.0-1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5-1.7

Nightly

Blokkjelzők

Block signals, as the name suggests, operate based on blocks of track. If the block of track on the opposite side of a signal is occupied, the signal is red. If not, it is green. A block of track consists of all track tiles reachable from a given piece of track without crossing over signals.

Two-way signals

Two-way signal.png
Two-way signals at a loading station

Two-way signals are used in a railway that has trains moving in both directions on the same track. The most common use is at end-of-line stations, where trains enter and exit the same end of the station. In the example at the right, the signals direct the next train to come into the empty loading bay. They also prevent the train from leaving the loading bay if another train is in the way.

If a train has a choice of two or more directions, each with two-way signals on them, it will choose the direction with a green signal. If all signals are red it will pick the easiest direction and wait for the signal to change.

One way signals

One-way signal.png
One-way signals in a loop

One-way signals limit train movement to one direction. In the example at the right, the signals force the trains to move in a circle. This has two advantages: trains enter and exit stations efficiently, and the track can have more than 2 trains.

When using one-way signals, be sure that they are all facing the correct direction. It is a good idea to watch the first train you run on the newly signaled line all the way to its destination to ensure you haven't made any mistakes.

Click on an existing two-way signal to toggle it to a one-way signal. Click on it again to change its direction (leaving it one-way); the third time will revert it back to a two-way signal.

If a train has a choice of tracks, each with a one way signal, it will pick the track heading towards its destination (i.e. it will wait until the signal on the track heading towards its destination turns green, as opposed to taking whichever signal is green if one of the signals is red). This is in contrast with two way signals.

If a train arrives at the wrong side of a one-way signal, it will immediately reverse.


Pre-jelzők

A problem - the left train may leave first.
Solve the problem using presignals

The image on the top right shows a setup where entry to a station is controlled using ordinary signals. When at least one platform is empty, this works well, as an incoming train is always directed to a free platform. However, consider what happens when all platforms are full, as in the screenshot. All branches are showing red, so the incoming train picks the easiest path - straight on. But suppose the train on the platform to the right is going to be in the station for some time. Meanwhile, the train on the left leaves. The incoming train has committed itself to a platform and is stuck waiting for a train to depart even though there is now an empty platform available! We need to stop that incoming train before the track splits so that it picks the empty platform when a train leaves. For this, we need to use pre-signals.

Pre-signals are signals that decide on which colour to show, not only by the status of the track immediately beyond, but also by the status of other pre-signals further down the line. Specifically, an entry pre-signal shows a green light if, and only if, there is a green exit from the block behind it. You, as the planner, need to identify which signals are to be the pre-signals and which are to identify exits.

Entry Pre-jelzők

Entry presignal.png
An entry presignal shows green as long as there is at least one green exit signal on the following section of track. Otherwise it shows red. This prevents trains from entering the signal block until there is an available exit. Note that depots have a built-in two way signal (it works as an entry pre-signal in a pre-signal set).

If there are no signals designated as exits behind the entry pre-signal, it behaves as a normal signal. This is convenient for bi-directional presignals where only one direction needs presignal functionality.

Exit-jelzők

Exit presignal.png
An exit signal behaves in the same way as a normal block signal but is necessary to trigger the correct colour on entry and combo pre-signals.


Combo-jelzők

Station with 1 entry pre-signal, 2 combo-signals, and 4 exit-signals
Combo presignal.png
There is a third type of presignal called the combo signal and simply acts as both an entry and exit signal. This allows you to build large "trees" of presignals as shown on the right.

Pre-jelzők építése

To build a pre-signal select the appropriate button in signal selection toolbar.

In previous versions, first place an ordinary signal. Then, with Ctrl held down, click the signal to cycle through the different kinds of presignal:

  • Note that you can build one way pre-signals in the same way as you build ordinary one way signals. Remember: holding Ctrl and clicking toggles the type of (pre)signal, clicking without Ctrl changes the direction of signaling - if interface signals not enabled.
  • Remember not to hold down Ctrl when placing the signal initially or you will end up with a semaphore (see below). Also use Ctrl if you have enabled the signal interface.

Limitations

The problem with presignals...

An important point to note with exit signals is that a green exit signal will trigger a green on the entry pre-signal at the beginning of the block even if it is not actually possible for a train to get to that exit signal because of the track layout (as in the image to the right with a train entering on the bottom track). This can ruin more complicated presignaling setups, so care needs to be taken with planning.

One of the bugs that are noted as "will not be solved" is: lost trains ignore (block) exit signals. If trains are lost, a random direction is chosen at each junction, so they ignore block exit signals, and easily may completely block junctions with presignals.


Útvonaljelzők

Two new signal types in the signal GUI.

There are two new signal types. These signals enable trains to reserve a path through a block until the next signal, before entering the block. If another train wants to enter the block, and succeeds in reserving a path through the block, the path signal authorize the train to enter the block, even if another track of the block is used at the same time.

Y block between three block signals

Here is an example as illustration

We have here a Y block between three signals. The right track is used by a train. A train arrives from the lower track and wants to go to the left track. A standard block signal considers that all the block is occupied (even if the left track is free).

With two additional block signals, theY has been split into three blocks: right arm, left arm and junction

A solution is to split this block into smaller blocks by adding signals after the junction.

Y block between a path signal and two block signals

On the contrary, the path signal authorizes the train coming from the bottom to enter the Y block, as the path it tries to reserve is free (the left track). No need to split the block into smaller blocks (i.e. no need for signals after the junction).

There are two things you should know about this signal:

  • Place it only where trains can stop and wait without blocking junctions ;
  • This signal only works in one direction. In the other direction, it is either ignored or considered a one-way signal, depending on the signal path (see below).
PS
  • Path Signal: trains can pass through this signal from the back side.
1W PS
  • One-way Path Signal: trains can not pass through this signal from the back side.

Most of the time it will be sufficient to use a default Path signal, as passing a signal from the back is penalised by the pathfinder, however, one-way Path signals might be useful in certain specific cases.

The two new signal types behave a bit differently than standard OpenTTD signal types. The Path signals are red by default, and will only show green as soon as a train can reserve a path to the next safe waiting position on its route. Safe waiting positions are - by definition - in front of signals, depots and track ends. The back of a Path signal is not considered a safe waiting position, and therefore paths are reserved through these signals.

Because the front of every signal is defined as a safe waiting position, you would normally not want to place a signal immediately behind a junction, only in front of a junction. This is because it is only safe for a train to wait in front of a junction. It is not safe for a a train to wait at a signal immediately after a junction before the whole train has cleared the junction, as it would be blocking the junction while waiting, as illustrated in the example below. This is a major advantage against standard OpenTTD signals, where you had to place signals before and after junctions, which caused trains to block junctions while waiting.

Bad: The signal indicated by the arrow is a bad waiting location, as the train in the junction now blocks the otherwise free path of the train coming from the top. There's a second bad waiting location in this picture. Can you find it?
Good: Here there is enough space after the juction for a train to wait. As long as this space is unavailable, the next train will wait before the junction rather than blocking it. This allows the train coming from the top to proceed.


This is one other example of what you can do with those path signals. This works far better than using pre-signals because you can have two trains leaving the station at the same time AND share the same depot (there is no way to make it with pre-signals, because of the block share). In this case there are one-way path signals for trains leaving the station, and simple path signal for trains leaving the depot.

Two exit station. Note that the signals in front of the depot are not required, as depots have built-in signals. However, path signals in front of depots like this give trains leaving the depot priority over trains wanting to enter the depot.


Haladó beállítások

YAPP Advanced Settings

There are three new Advanced Settings related to path signals.

One option is to highlight reserved tracks. This option is useful to troubleshoot your path-signaled junctions, as you can see what paths trains have reserved through a junction.

The other two options control how the build signal tool should behave. You can set the signal type which should be built by default when building a new signal with the signal tool and change which signal types should be cycled through on ctrl-clicking an already existing signal.

There are a few more path signal related options which are not available through the Advanced Settings window. What these options are, and how to edit them is covered under Advanced path signal options & features.

Alapvető példák

Below are some example track layouts which use the path signals. There are also Advanced track layouts that are not recommended for beginners.

Alapvető csomópont

This basic junction now has a much higher throughput.

Basic junction for trains with max length of three tiles. Note the use of normal signals on plain track.

Alapvető kétirányú állomás

With this station layout, trains can use both platforms when coming from either direction.

Basic station.


Feature availability

<1.0

1.0-1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5-1.7

Nightly

Szemaforok

Semaphore.png

Semaphores are a type of signal with a different, old-style, appearance and the same function as a regular signal.

Before OpenTTD 0.6.0 semaphores were only created by holding Ctrl while placing the signals. Since 0.6.0 semaphores will be created instead of light signals before a configurable year, 1975 by default. This setting is called "Automatically build semaphores before" and can be found in the "Advanced settings" under "Construction" and then "Signals".

After placement, holding Ctrl and clicking changes the extended signal status of the signals (i.e. presignals). You can change pre-placed semaphores to light signals by choosing the "convert signal" tool from the signal-gui and ctrl+clicking on an existing signal.

Történelem

Semaphore signals have a long history in rail lines. Long before the advent of electric lights, semaphores were used to indicate the direction of switch-tracks, and the safety of going into the tracks beyond. Semaphores are simply mechanically controlled signs that raise or lower based upon the status of the track.

In the original Transport Tycoon, rail signals created before 1975 were semaphores. Afterward, signals were created as standard coloured lights. Transport Tycoon Deluxe removed this functionality, but it has been restored in TTDPatch and OpenTTD.


Feature availability

<1.0

1.0-1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5-1.7

Nightly

Vonatok rendezése

Signals are intended to prevent trains from crashing into each other, and to help them choose between several track sections to the same destination. If you want to direct a train to a particular destination via a certain route, you should use Waypoints.

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